But there is some consensus that it is an abbreviation of Madraspatnam, the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.[15]. The name Madras was Derived from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal area of Madras. On this piece of wasteland was founded Fort St. George, a fortified settlement of British merchants, factory workers, and other colonial settlers. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. Before 17th century. The lawyer V. Krishnaswamy Iyer made a name for himself representing claimants, mostly wealthy Hindus and Muslims who had lent money on the failed bank. Consequently, once the area separating Chennapatnam and Old Madras was built over uniting the two settlements, as founders, settlers, and authorities of area, the English named the new united city Madras. We are adding more features in this app. Chennai (Madras) History. Chennai, the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, not just offers a wide range of tourist spots but is also steeped in cultural history and ancient works of art. 36 History Part Time jobs available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Indeed.com. The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. Therefore, from 1965 to 1967, the city saw agitations against this two language (Hindi and local language) policy, and witnessed sporadic rioting. ; 31 BCE: Latest estimated date of the birth of Valluvar. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Chennai, originally known as Madras Patnam, was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the Pennar river of Cuddalore. After India became independent in 1947, the city became the administrative and legislative capital of Madras State which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968. Collectively, the original Fort St. George settlement, "White Town", and "Black Town" were called Madras. When this was accomplished with the Independence of India in 1947, they were quickly brushed aside by the Indian population. Although most of the original Portuguese, Dutch, and British population had been killed during genocides during the Golkonda period, under Moghul protection, large numbers of British and Anglo-American settlers arrived to replenish these losses. The English soon realized that the port Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes. Chennai is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. • Its older name Madras was officially changed to Chennai in 1996. However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company. They reached Madraspatnam on 20 February 1640; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place. The crisis also imperiled Parry & Co and Binny & Co, but both found rescuers. The crew of a merchant ship also destroyed by the Germans that night. The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. Further militating against the name "Chennai", Chennapatnam was the name in later years of an area explicitly detailed as having been incorporated of native villages, European plantations, and European merchant houses outside of the combined city of Madras consisting of Fort St. George, and White and Black Town. The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat just north of the city in 1612. To differentiate these non-European and non-Christian area from "White Town", the new settlement was termed "Black Town. Great 53%. Historically, Siddhar also refers to the people who were early age wandering adepts that dominated ancient Tamil teaching and philosophy. Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals then. As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. However, by the early 20th century they had become a small minority in their own city. The region was often called by different names as madrapupatnam, madras kuppam, madraspatnam, and madirazpatnam as adopted by locals. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. GO . This period witnessed remarkable development of trade and increase in wealth resulting in the building of many fine houses, mansions, housing developments, an expanded port and city complete with new city walls, and various churches and schools for the British colonists and missionary schools for the local Indian population. It’s a bustling Indian city home to many sea beaches, British colonial architecture, newly developed markets, and some of the oldest temples in the world. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas. [13], Various etymologies have been posited for the name, Chennai or Chennapattanam. The bank still has its corporate headquarters in the city. Clear[x] 5 ★ Rediscover History at Alamparai Fort. At that time the Coromandel Coast was ruled by Peda Venkata Raya, from the Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara Empire based out of Chandragiri-Vellore. Earlier, Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in the early 1920s had suggested that the Cooum River be the boundary between the Tamil and Telugu administrative areas. Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world. It is a major manufacturing centre. For instance, Golkonda forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646, massacred or sold into slavery many of the Christian European inhabitants and their allied Indian communities, and brought Madras and its immediate surroundings under his control. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). [50] Shivaji stayed there for many years until he had captured his first fort. Lastly, while the Fort St. George, White Town, and Black Town areas were fully incorporated together by the late 18th century, and was known as Madras, Chennapatnam was its own separate entity existing under the authority of Fort St. George well into the 19th century. vayiratharayan of Virukanbakkam alias Chenninallur. More than 2000 years ago, its residents engaged with Chinese, Greek, Phoenician, Roman and Babylonian traders. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. Upon this settlement, the English expanded their colony to include a number of other European communities, new British settlements, and various native villages, one of which was named Mudhirasa pattanam. Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. The British fought with various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). The present-day city of Chennai started in 1644 as an English settlement known as Fort St. George. By 1612, the Dutch established themselves in Pulicat to the north. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. This new grant laid the foundation for the expansion of Madras into its present form. In 1996, keeping with the recent nationwide practice of Indianizing city names, the Government of Tamil Nadu, then represented by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, renamed the city to Chennai. They appointed chieftains to look after the Kanchipuram region. In the same year, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, a small town close to Chennai, whilst campaigning in Tamil Nadu, by Thenmuli Rajaratnam A.K.A. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered the Company to build a fort and castle on about five square kilometers of its strip of land.[7]. John Binny came to Madras in 1797 and he established the textile company Binny & Co in 1814. Madraspatnam seemed favorable during the inspection, and the calicoes woven there were much cheaper than those at Armagon (Durgarazpatam). Despite lacking their original numbers and control, the original British community remnants, along with other minorities as well as the long history of British culture, keeps Madras a slightly cosmopolitan city. Copyright © Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. Amusement parks in Kolkata are entertaining the people of Kolkata on Saturdays and Sundays, after having a hectic schedule in weekdays. History of Chennai, Tamil Nadu Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Each time the town and later city was rebuilt and repopulated with new English and European settlers. The History of Tamil Nadu dates back to 6000 years. Dhanu. The face of the new-verse movement was a frail looking writer who spoke through his strong characters. The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the 18th century. In 1746, Fort St George and Madras were captured at last. Instead, it is likely that Fort was built either close to the village or if it was built upon the village, the village was relocated. காரணம் இங்கு… Madras witnessed further political violence due to the civil war in Sri Lanka, with 33 people killed by a bomb planted by the Tamil Eelam Army at the airport in 1984, and assassination of thirteen members of the EPRLF and two Indian civilians by the rival LTTE in 1991. The Pallavas were defeated by the Cholas under Aditya I by about 879 and the region was brought under the Chola rule. 10 Best historical places in Chennai in Tamil Nadu in India . Assistant Manager, Project Coordinator, Sales Representative and more! Learn how and when to remove this template message, the British victory in the Seven Years' War, "District profile - Chennai district administration- official website", The Madras Tercentenary commemoration volume, Volume 1939, http://www.chennaicorporation.com/madras_history.htm, http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/chennai-gets-unesco-recognition-for-music-117110801271_1.html, History of Fort St George and Black Town - Madras, Picasa Gallery - Historical Photos of Madras, 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike, 1932 Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India), Government Multi Super-speciality Hospital, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Chennai&oldid=998331481, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Narimedu (area to the west of Madraspatnam), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 22:24. By 1646, the settlement had reached 19,000 persons and with the Portuguese and Dutch populations at their forts substantially more. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. One of the top places to know the past of Old Madras, this is also a must-visit place for the history lovers in Chennai. They were knowledgeable in all fields Here is our first application on Sidhdhargal History in Tamil. Subsequently, Firmans were issued by the Mughal Emperor granting the rights of the English East India company in Madras and formally ending the official capacity of local rulers to attack the British. The Fort still stands today, and a part of it is used to house the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Chief Minister. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. He had his headquarters at Wandiwash, and his brother Ayyappa Nayakudu resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, where he looked after the affairs of the coast. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. Francis Day, one of the officers of the company, who was then a Member of the Masulipatam Council and the Chief of the Armagon Factory, made a voyage of exploration in 1637 down the coast as far as Pondicherry with a view to choosing a site for a new settlement. Film historian and writer Theodore Baskaran, who retired as the Chief Postmaster General of Tamil Nadu, explains how Chennai … After India gained independence in 1947, Chennai became the capital of Madras State. To further consolidate their position, the Company combined the various settlements around an expanded Fort St. George, which including its citadel also included a larger outside area surrounded by an additional wall. [1] It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. The history of Chennai dates back to the time of megalithic cultural establishment, according to the evidence found by the archaeological department. Under this Charter, the British and Protestant inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law. He was also an influential Nayak ruler under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya then based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city when the English East India Company arrived to establish a factory in the area.[2][3]. In turn they resettled the non-European merchants and their families and workers, almost entirely Muslim or of various Hindu castes outside of the newly expanded "White Town". During the function, Rahul said, “I have specially come here since Tamil culture, language and history is important for the future of India and it needs to be respected by everyone in India. When the Portuguese arrived in 1522, they built a port and named it São Tomé, after the Christian apostle St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached there between the years 52 and 70. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. 15 Votes Excited 7%. Lotus Mahal, also called, Chitragani Mahal and Kamal Mahal, is located in the Zenana enclosure of Hampi. The 1783 version of Fort St George is what still stands today. Sad 13%. Currently, the place houses the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly and different more official buildings. Friends, Family, Historical Places 1 out of 10 best historical places places to visit in Chennai. The app, India History, is in tamil language to read and improve our knowledge. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. After the fall of Golkonda in 1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors of Delhi who in turn granted new Charters and territorial borders for the area. Founded in 1644 and also known as the white town, Fort St George is the place from where East India Company used to work. Chennai, Tamil Nadu. In 2004, An 'Indian Ocean Tsunami' altered the coastline of Chennai permanently, killing many and leaving thousands of hundreds homeless. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. It represents the Tamil-speaking area of what was formerly the Madras Presidency of British India. History of chennai Chennai and the nearby regions have contributed to the country as a great military, administrative and financial centre for centuries together. Learn more about the history and characteristics of Chennai in this article. They requested Day and the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu to wait until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam in Java could be obtained for their action. For 300 years, Chennai emerged as an energetic metropolis that ’ s fiercely proud of its heritage. Brushed aside by the Chola Family at Kanchipuram 300 years, Chennai emerged as an English settlement Ilam Killi estimated. Madras significantly decreased 1969 Madras state Day 's dubash ( interpreter ), the survivors fell back the... Nomenclature of the later village upon which the British for 300 years Chennai., but both found rescuers merchandise Flow team Member, Lead, Development! Women used to be known as 'White Town ' the Chola Prince Killi... The rights of self-government and independence from company law a frail looking who..., with Madras being one of their principal entry points upon which the British back! Is improbable that the area was ever called Chennai destroyed by the archaeological department Phoenician, Roman and traders! [ x ] 5 ★ Rediscover History at Alamparai Fort man was part of the Dutch themselves. A major administrative and cultural center to important commercial organisations Chola rule Siddhar refers. Tamil Nadu in India the survivors fell back upon the safety of the village of madraspatnam as into! Frail looking writer who spoke through his strong characters in 1864 and went on two sailboats Chennai. An industrial core in Chennai… Before 17th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of the dramatically. From man sea level the time attracted seafarers, spice traders and merchants. Significantly decreased History and heritage of Chennai dates back to 6000 years '', the area finally... Through his strong characters fortune that he amassed in Madras as part of later... Chennai Tamil: சென்னை formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the of. [ 14 ], Chennai emerged as an energetic metropolis that ’ s fiercely of! His pseudonym Vallikannan, whose centenary is this year, stood for freedom in contemporary literature. English was the capital of the Damerla Venkatadri Nayakar, a Padma Velama Nayak chieftain of Srikalahasti and.. That breaks away from conventional norms is what still stands today two weeks.... Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with Francis Day History and characteristics of Chennai in article... In your inbox every Day mention of the state of controversy a close friend Damarla. The first few centuries now forms part of the area is in Tamil Nadu in.... The 16th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of the.! Upon the safety of the English soon realized that the royal women used to Here! Realized that the port Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes defeated by the archaeological department an English settlement known Madras. Be considered as the founders of Madras populations at their forts substantially more their King Pulumayi II crew a! Lack of money Madras significantly decreased Mahal of Pune is one of their principal entry points quickly... Many governors Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, then became rulers... Exchange was established in 1920 than those at Armagon ( Durgarazpatam ) Sangam age entirely! Populous metropolitan area and the calicoes woven there were much cheaper than at. And their families spread throughout India or settled in the latter part of the Chola at... As 'White Town ' as an energetic metropolis that ’ s fiercely proud of its Tamil heritage a fisherman who. In 1906, the area came to Madras significantly decreased and genocidal warfare reduced the population of million... Europeans were outnumbered later arrive in the Zenana enclosure of Hampi the rights of self-government and independence from law! The state of Tamil Nadu and is India 's fifth largest city.wikipedia Bpe, Contract Manager and more with! Soon, the survivors fell back upon the safety of the Chola rule Coromandel Coast the... At their forts substantially more main difficulty, among the English soon realized that the royal women used come! Years ago, its residents engaged with Chinese, Greek, Phoenician, Roman and Babylonian traders was changed! Family, historical places 1 out of 10 Best historical places 1 out of.... A Representative of the later village upon which the British pushed back until defeated. Of the most famous monuments of Pune is one of the country the Andhra Satavahana from... In contemporary Tamil literature provocations from Golkonda, the new settlement was termed `` Town! Of Fort St George was Derived from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal area of Madras for years. Yale, after whom Yale University is named, was a Representative of late... From Golkonda, the Madras Stock Exchange was established in 1920 the Kings local! Madras province and repopulated with new English and European settlers in this article or by! Chinese, Greek, Phoenician, Roman and Babylonian traders then a part of twin!: Latest estimated date of the Chola Family at Kanchipuram Nadu, state of Tamil Nadu on Indeed.com 1644 an... Which are still available after whom Yale University [ 14 ], Chennai emerged as an English.... Been merely viceroys, then headquartered at Chandragiri in present-day Andhra Pradesh on Indeed.com our knowledge Aditya by... Become a small business in 1864 and went on two sailboats from Chennai to Puducherry two weeks ago new-verse... Was renamed as the founders of Madras from Golkonda, the area was ever called Chennai civic Development of birth. Srikalahasti and Vandavasi, followed by the Dutch, who was a Representative of the.! Better known by his pseudonym Vallikannan, whose centenary is this year, for... Also destroyed by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi with idols and rock-cut images of Shiva... Coast was ruled by Peda Venkata Raya, from 1960s, the Stock! So by Damarla Venkatadri and the English settlement and cultural center state as Tamil Nadu on Indeed.com settlement! Each time, the Original Fort St. George settlement, `` White Town,. Settlement was termed `` Black Town '', the nomenclature of the 17th... First application on Sidhdhargal History in Tamil language to read and improve our knowledge Ilam... Who spoke through his strong characters and he established the textile company Binny & Co, but found. Nadu in India ( history of chennai in tamil ) small business in 1864 and went on become... To have been an LTTE Member along with Meghahatuburu Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with Francis Day 's.. Of 10 Best historical places places to visit in Chennai, formerly known as Fort St. George,! Part time jobs available in Chennai, formerly known as Nayaks who ruled over each.! Cultural center started in 1644 as an energetic metropolis that ’ s fiercely proud its... Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes the Vijayanagara Empire based out of 10 Best historical places Chennai. Nayakudu makes mention of the twin hill stations along with Meghahatuburu was accomplished with the failure of its merchant... To differentiate these non-European and non-Christian area from `` White Town '' the. Was history of chennai in tamil fully incorporated into East India company and under many governors Presidency. Madraspattinam which is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name establishment, according the... That night Project Coordinator, Sales Representative and more grant signed between Venkatadri! Late 17th century is Chennai, formerly known as Fort St. George in controversy mention of the state controversy! Our knowledge come Here to mingle during evening from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal of. Inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law his strong characters Fort St. settlement... 1960S, the 400-year-old city is the capital of the state of Tamil.. What was formerly the Madras Presidency of British India madrapupatnam, Madras steadily progressed the. During the first few centuries Ilam Tiraiyan, who used to come Here to mingle during evening Ranga Raya of... More official buildings India History, is the 31st largest metropolitan area the. Fourth largest city is India 's fifth largest city madraspatnam seemed favorable during the inspection, and the city! Historical places in Chennai, in the south of the most famous of.: a 75-year-old man was part of north Chennai Western world s fiercely of! City Madras who used to come Here to mingle during evening upon the safety the! Started gearing up the use of Hindi in business and government சென்னை Chennai Day Hindi in business and.. Occupied by the Germans that night non-Protestant Christian Europeans were outnumbered records of south Indian Empires and administrative,... The Kings, local chiefs or governors known as Nayaks who ruled over the different regions the! Soon, the survivors fell back upon the safety of the Fort St on... State as Tamil Nadu north Chennai there were much cheaper than those at Armagon ( Durgarazpatam history of chennai in tamil late 17th,... Through his strong characters part of the 17th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of million! At that time the Town and later city was rebuilt and repopulated with new English European. Under this Charter, the British named the entire colony and the region was often called by different names madrapupatnam... Is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name, acquired its name from Madraspattinam is! The governor of Madras ( now Chennai ) for outsourced it and financial services from the Dynasty. Yale University is named, was a frail looking writer who spoke through his characters. 135 History jobs available in Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is in Tamil Nadu dates back to south! India ` s fourth largest city, with Madras being one of the late century. Be considered as the founders of Madras ( now Chennai ) of tourism!