But there is some consensus that it is an abbreviation of Madraspatnam, the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.. The name Madras was Derived from Madrasan a fisherman head who lived in coastal area of Madras. On this piece of wasteland was founded Fort St. George, a fortified settlement of British merchants, factory workers, and other colonial settlers. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. Before 17th century. The lawyer V. Krishnaswamy Iyer made a name for himself representing claimants, mostly wealthy Hindus and Muslims who had lent money on the failed bank. Consequently, once the area separating Chennapatnam and Old Madras was built over uniting the two settlements, as founders, settlers, and authorities of area, the English named the new united city Madras. We are adding more features in this app. Chennai (Madras) History. Chennai, the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, not just offers a wide range of tourist spots but is also steeped in cultural history and ancient works of art. 36 History Part Time jobs available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Indeed.com. The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. Therefore, from 1965 to 1967, the city saw agitations against this two language (Hindi and local language) policy, and witnessed sporadic rioting. ; 31 BCE: Latest estimated date of the birth of Valluvar. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Chennai, originally known as Madras Patnam, was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the Pennar river of Cuddalore. After India became independent in 1947, the city became the administrative and legislative capital of Madras State which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968. Collectively, the original Fort St. George settlement, "White Town", and "Black Town" were called Madras. When this was accomplished with the Independence of India in 1947, they were quickly brushed aside by the Indian population. Although most of the original Portuguese, Dutch, and British population had been killed during genocides during the Golkonda period, under Moghul protection, large numbers of British and Anglo-American settlers arrived to replenish these losses. The English soon realized that the port Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes. Chennai is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. • Its older name Madras was officially changed to Chennai in 1996. However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company. They reached Madraspatnam on 20 February 1640; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place. The crisis also imperiled Parry & Co and Binny & Co, but both found rescuers. The crew of a merchant ship also destroyed by the Germans that night. The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. Further militating against the name "Chennai", Chennapatnam was the name in later years of an area explicitly detailed as having been incorporated of native villages, European plantations, and European merchant houses outside of the combined city of Madras consisting of Fort St. George, and White and Black Town. The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat just north of the city in 1612. To differentiate these non-European and non-Christian area from "White Town", the new settlement was termed "Black Town. Great 53%. Historically, Siddhar also refers to the people who were early age wandering adepts that dominated ancient Tamil teaching and philosophy. Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals then. As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. However, by the early 20th century they had become a small minority in their own city. The region was often called by different names as madrapupatnam, madras kuppam, madraspatnam, and madirazpatnam as adopted by locals. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. GO . This period witnessed remarkable development of trade and increase in wealth resulting in the building of many fine houses, mansions, housing developments, an expanded port and city complete with new city walls, and various churches and schools for the British colonists and missionary schools for the local Indian population. It’s a bustling Indian city home to many sea beaches, British colonial architecture, newly developed markets, and some of the oldest temples in the world. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas. , Various etymologies have been posited for the name, Chennai or Chennapattanam. The bank still has its corporate headquarters in the city. Clear[x] 5 ★ Rediscover History at Alamparai Fort. At that time the Coromandel Coast was ruled by Peda Venkata Raya, from the Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara Empire based out of Chandragiri-Vellore. Earlier, Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in the early 1920s had suggested that the Cooum River be the boundary between the Tamil and Telugu administrative areas. Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world. It is a major manufacturing centre. For instance, Golkonda forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646, massacred or sold into slavery many of the Christian European inhabitants and their allied Indian communities, and brought Madras and its immediate surroundings under his control. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country).  Shivaji stayed there for many years until he had captured his first fort. Lastly, while the Fort St. George, White Town, and Black Town areas were fully incorporated together by the late 18th century, and was known as Madras, Chennapatnam was its own separate entity existing under the authority of Fort St. George well into the 19th century. vayiratharayan of Virukanbakkam alias Chenninallur. More than 2000 years ago, its residents engaged with Chinese, Greek, Phoenician, Roman and Babylonian traders. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. Upon this settlement, the English expanded their colony to include a number of other European communities, new British settlements, and various native villages, one of which was named Mudhirasa pattanam. Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. The British fought with various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). The present-day city of Chennai started in 1644 as an English settlement known as Fort St. George. By 1612, the Dutch established themselves in Pulicat to the north. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. This new grant laid the foundation for the expansion of Madras into its present form. In 1996, keeping with the recent nationwide practice of Indianizing city names, the Government of Tamil Nadu, then represented by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, renamed the city to Chennai. They appointed chieftains to look after the Kanchipuram region. In the same year, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, a small town close to Chennai, whilst campaigning in Tamil Nadu, by Thenmuli Rajaratnam A.K.A. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered the Company to build a fort and castle on about five square kilometers of its strip of land.. John Binny came to Madras in 1797 and he established the textile company Binny & Co in 1814. Madraspatnam seemed favorable during the inspection, and the calicoes woven there were much cheaper than those at Armagon (Durgarazpatam). Despite lacking their original numbers and control, the original British community remnants, along with other minorities as well as the long history of British culture, keeps Madras a slightly cosmopolitan city. Copyright © Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. Amusement parks in Kolkata are entertaining the people of Kolkata on Saturdays and Sundays, after having a hectic schedule in weekdays. History of Chennai, Tamil Nadu Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Each time the town and later city was rebuilt and repopulated with new English and European settlers. The History of Tamil Nadu dates back to 6000 years. Dhanu. The face of the new-verse movement was a frail looking writer who spoke through his strong characters. The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the 18th century. In 1746, Fort St George and Madras were captured at last. Instead, it is likely that Fort was built either close to the village or if it was built upon the village, the village was relocated. காரணம் இங்கு… Madras witnessed further political violence due to the civil war in Sri Lanka, with 33 people killed by a bomb planted by the Tamil Eelam Army at the airport in 1984, and assassination of thirteen members of the EPRLF and two Indian civilians by the rival LTTE in 1991. The Pallavas were defeated by the Cholas under Aditya I by about 879 and the region was brought under the Chola rule. 10 Best historical places in Chennai in Tamil Nadu in India . Assistant Manager, Project Coordinator, Sales Representative and more! Learn how and when to remove this template message, the British victory in the Seven Years' War, "District profile - Chennai district administration- official website", The Madras Tercentenary commemoration volume, Volume 1939, http://www.chennaicorporation.com/madras_history.htm, http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/chennai-gets-unesco-recognition-for-music-117110801271_1.html, History of Fort St George and Black Town - Madras, Picasa Gallery - Historical Photos of Madras, 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike, 1932 Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India), Government Multi Super-speciality Hospital, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Chennai&oldid=998331481, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Narimedu (area to the west of Madraspatnam), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 22:24. By 1646, the settlement had reached 19,000 persons and with the Portuguese and Dutch populations at their forts substantially more. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. One of the top places to know the past of Old Madras, this is also a must-visit place for the history lovers in Chennai. They were knowledgeable in all fields Here is our first application on Sidhdhargal History in Tamil. Subsequently, Firmans were issued by the Mughal Emperor granting the rights of the English East India company in Madras and formally ending the official capacity of local rulers to attack the British. The Fort still stands today, and a part of it is used to house the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Chief Minister. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. He had his headquarters at Wandiwash, and his brother Ayyappa Nayakudu resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, where he looked after the affairs of the coast. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. Francis Day, one of the officers of the company, who was then a Member of the Masulipatam Council and the Chief of the Armagon Factory, made a voyage of exploration in 1637 down the coast as far as Pondicherry with a view to choosing a site for a new settlement. Film historian and writer Theodore Baskaran, who retired as the Chief Postmaster General of Tamil Nadu, explains how Chennai … After India gained independence in 1947, Chennai became the capital of Madras State. To further consolidate their position, the Company combined the various settlements around an expanded Fort St. George, which including its citadel also included a larger outside area surrounded by an additional wall.  It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. The history of Chennai dates back to the time of megalithic cultural establishment, according to the evidence found by the archaeological department. Under this Charter, the British and Protestant inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law. He was also an influential Nayak ruler under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya then based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city when the English East India Company arrived to establish a factory in the area.. In turn they resettled the non-European merchants and their families and workers, almost entirely Muslim or of various Hindu castes outside of the newly expanded "White Town". During the function, Rahul said, “I have specially come here since Tamil culture, language and history is important for the future of India and it needs to be respected by everyone in India. When the Portuguese arrived in 1522, they built a port and named it São Tomé, after the Christian apostle St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached there between the years 52 and 70. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. 15 Votes Excited 7%. Lotus Mahal, also called, Chitragani Mahal and Kamal Mahal, is located in the Zenana enclosure of Hampi. The 1783 version of Fort St George is what still stands today. Sad 13%. Currently, the place houses the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly and different more official buildings. Friends, Family, Historical Places 1 out of 10 best historical places places to visit in Chennai. The app, India History, is in tamil language to read and improve our knowledge. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. After the fall of Golkonda in 1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors of Delhi who in turn granted new Charters and territorial borders for the area. Founded in 1644 and also known as the white town, Fort St George is the place from where East India Company used to work. Chennai, Tamil Nadu. In 2004, An 'Indian Ocean Tsunami' altered the coastline of Chennai permanently, killing many and leaving thousands of hundreds homeless. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. 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