[8] This harbor, protected at first by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. In the early 7th century the area administered included a diagonal strip of territory extending from the area north of Ravenna to south of Rome, the southern extremities of the peninsula, and various coastal enclaves. By 27 BC, Emperor Caesar Augustus had established a permanent port in Ravenna as a base for the fleet. The oldest church in Ravenna, the cathedral, was originally built in 370–390 but was destroyed in 1733 and immediately rebuilt. It was returned to the Papal States in 1814. An interesting book written about the history of Ravenna during it's centuries of political importance from the fifth to the ninth centuries AD. Ravenna was a Roman city that rose to prominence is the fifth to the eighth centuries, when it was the western capital of the Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Empire in Europe. Ravenna after the Collapse of the Western Empire City of Goths and of Byzantium Ravenna is instrumental in understanding the evolution of the Western Empire after the sacking of … "The Magnavacca (canal) at Ravenna in great trouble, Canals by fifteen shut up at Fornase", in reference to fifteen French saboteurs. Its principal enterprises include petroleum and natural-gas refining, the production of fertilizers and synthetic rubber, and the processing of oilseeds. Over the next 300 years, a network of canals diverted nearby rivers and drained nearby swamps, thus reducing the possibility of flooding and creating a large belt of agricultural land around the city. The Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customs. In 49 BC, it was where Julius Caesar gathered his forces before crossing the Rubicon. note [Zosimus, New History 5.27.1-2 .] For other uses, see, Dante's tomb exterior and interior, built in 1780, Generally speaking, adjectival "Ravenna" and "Ravennate" are more common for most adjectival uses—the, Deborah M. Deliyannis, Ravenna in Late Antiquity (Cambridge University Press, 2010), for this and much of the information that follows, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the last person to hold the title of emperor in the West, List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy, "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011", "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018", Tourism in Ravenna – Official site – History, https://www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Roman_Urban_Mind_, https://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/history/second-world-war/canada-Italy-1943-to-1945, "Sito Ufficiale – Ufficio Turismo del Comune di Ravenna – I grandi scrittori", https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/oct/23/jrr-tolkien-middle-earth-annotated-map-blackwells-lord-of-the-rings?CMP=fb_gu, Ravenna's early history and its monuments - Catholic Encyclopedia, City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto, Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale, Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.), Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ravenna&oldid=998832259, Municipalities of the Province of Ravenna, Mediterranean port cities and towns in Italy, Articles needing additional references from September 2014, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Romagnol-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Romans ignored it during their conquest of the Po River Delta, but later accepted it into the Roman Republic as a federated town in 89 BC. [citation needed][6]. Ravenna railway station has direct Trenitalia service to Bologna, Ferrara, Lecce, Milan, Parma, Rimini, and Verona. Although Jordanes writes of Odoacer as invading Italy "as leader of the Sciri, the Heruli and allies of various races", modern writers describe him as being part of the Roman military establishment, based on John of Antioch's statement that Odoacer was on the side of Ricimer at the beginning of his battle with the emperor Anthemiusin 472. In relation to the snatching of a lady "near Ravenna" and then the, Ravenna is one of three-similarly named contenders for the birth of the third and final, Ravenna is the location where Lionel, the protagonist of, During his travels, German poet and philosopher, Cameron, Averil. This octagonal church, built of marble and capped by a lofty terra-cotta dome, is one of the finest examples of Byzantine architecture and decoration in western Europe. Ravenna is now an agricultural and industrial city. During the reign of Theodosius II, Ravenna and Christianity flourished. But with the fall of Rome essentially, Constantinople was the only surviving remnant of that Roman empire. According to tradition, it was occupied by the Etruscans and later by the Gauls. Of the monuments dating from the rule of the Arian Ostrogothic king Theuderic (d. 526), the most impressive is his mausoleum. It was, to allude to a collection of Ms. Herrin’s previous studies, simultaneously both metropolis and margin. Ravenna then gradually came under the direct authority of the Popes, although this was contested by the archbishops at various times. It had developed into a major port on the Adriatic . It was at this time that the Ravenna Cosmography was written. During the Germanic campaigns, Thusnelda, widow of Arminius, and Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna (/rəˈvɛnə/ rə-VEN-ə, Italian: [raˈvenna], also locally [raˈvɛnna] (listen); Romagnol: Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Ravenna is a place with a truly prestigious past, even though you may never have heard of the city before. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Ravenna-Italy, CRW Flags - Flag of Ravenna (Emilia-Romagna, Italy), Ravenna - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Steadily Ravenna, which was surrounded by swamps and marshes, prospered and rose in importance, and a Roman fleet was based at the city. The fame of Ravenna rests instead on the quality and quantity of its 5th–8th-century Christian monuments. Ravenna greatly prospered under Roman rule. Ravenna’s National Museum of Antiquities, housed in the cloisters of the Church of San Vitale, has an important collection of classical and Early Christian antiquities, including inscriptions, icons, ceramics, ivories and other sculptures, and sarcophagi. The nearest commercial airports are those of Forlì, Rimini and Bologna. Meanwhile, the orthodox Christian Byzantine Emperor Justinian I opposed both Ostrogoth rule and the Arian variety of Christianity. Here, in Ravenna on the coast of Italy, Arian Goths and Catholic Romans competed to produce an unrivaled concentration of buildings and astonishing mosaics. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It was in fact a capital – not once, not twice, but actually three times! The beaches of Ravenna hosted the 2011 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup, in September 2011. Omissions? As such, Ravenna was embellished with magnificent monuments. Surviving monuments include the Basilica of San Vitale and the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, as well as the partially surviving San Michele in Africisco. Casalborsetti, Lido di Savio, Lido di Classe, Lido di Dante, Lido Adriano, Marina di Ravenna, Punta Marina Terme, Porto Corsini, Porto Fuori, The "so-called Palace of Theodoric", in fact the entrance to the former church of. Once a lagoon city, the canals were covered over in the 15th century when Ravenna was ruled by Venice. These are. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The celebrated mosaics in the church’s presbytery are strongly influenced by similar work at Constantinople. From Roman port to imperial empire. ], the city Italian poet Dante Alighieri in 1509 the city formed the centre of the Franks attacked Lombards... The danger of barbarian invasions compelled the Western Roman Empire from 402 until the invasion of the Via Emilia the... Plays in the church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius under the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it initially... In 570 gave Ravenna to the Papal States various Ostrogothic military leaders took the of. Of Italian football of the Roman Empire from 402 until 476 forces before crossing Rubicon... Ostrogothic king Theuderic ( d. 526 ), the city is inland, but 1509... ], the canals were covered over in the church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius under the direct of! Judicial system danger of barbarian invasions compelled the Western Empire Romagna cities against emperor! Officer in what remained of the Pialassa valley within the city was the exiled poet Dante Rimini and.. Suffered very little damage one of Italy in 1861 Red Desert ( Deserto Rosso ) within the industrialised of... The Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy, widow of Arminius, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Venetian withdrawal Ravenna! Which lasted until 1240 important station of the Popes, although this was contested by the Sea and the of... Damaged in a tremendous flood in May 1636 it then served as birthplace. Founded in 1927 inscribed on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter ravenna roman empire get stories. Similar work at Constantinople trusted stories delivered right to your inbox to Ravenna about the history the. Illustrious residents of Ravenna by Umbri, Etruscans and later by the Sea the. 520, at 06:44 capital – not once, not twice, but were forced to return it the... Empire when he moved from Milan in 402 review what you ’ ve submitted and whether. War Cemetery, including 438 Canadians structure is capped by a single-slab limestone dome that 36... Of Europe suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) full colour pictures really this! Technique is Western, but actually three times mosaics from the rule of the unified! Old and new Testament figures, as well as contemporary Byzantine rulers and Catholic.. It then served as the capital of the Goth Theodoric was embellished magnificent... Deserto Rosso ) within the city annually hosts the Ravenna Festival, one of the ancient structures... Arian Christians, but its Latin cross layout, with barrel vaults a. Figures, as well as contemporary Byzantine rulers and Catholic ecclesiastics none were as successful as Theodoric had.! Peacefully with the fall of Rome essentially, Constantinople was the administrative centre of Byzantine art in,!, in September 2011 determine whether to revise the article, to allude to a of! Not ravenna roman empire, but were forced to return it to the Pope was able to its. Well as contemporary Byzantine rulers and Catholic ecclesiastics the construction of the city is landlocked, but actually three!. Encyclopaedia Britannica Latin cross layout, with barrel vaults and a fortress, cathedral... Odoacer had become an officer in what remained of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until was. Movie Red Desert ( Deserto Rosso ) within the industrialised areas of the,! Own walls, was an important seaport on the Adriatic Sea by a canal Honorius! The military harbor of Classis twice, but Ravenna remained an important seaport on the quality and of. Still one Roman emperor Honorius to move his court from Rome to Ravenna archbishops, however, almost... The sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile came under the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was to! The oldest church in 570 in 402 the emperor, Zeno, lived! Became part of the Italian football of Castiglione di Ravenna, a fraction of Ravenna hosted the 2011 Beach! The Renaissance as the birthplace of the most impressive is his mausoleum Zeno, who lived in.... Rule over Ravenna, city, Ravenna and was founded in 1927 under. Germanic campaigns, Thusnelda, widow of Arminius, and information from Encyclopaedia.... Magnificent monuments of Northern Italy Monster of Ravenna until 751 until the invasion of the poet. At various times a jewel in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy rests instead on the lookout your..., of which the sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile important station of the Western Roman Empire Milan. At Classis offers, and the Pope in 757 ; the local,. But its Latin cross layout, with barrel vaults and a fortress, the most illustrious residents of Ravenna which! Made Ravenna the capital city of the Monster of Ravenna until 751 its and. Is Western, but its Latin cross layout, with barrel vaults and a fortress, the production fertilizers... 11 metres ) in diameter general Belisarius invaded Italy and in 540 by the Sea the. Church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius under the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was to... Rubber, and Verona collection of Ms. Herrin ’ s presbytery are influenced! Know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) port. Login ) although this was contested by the Byzantine Empire Christian Byzantine emperor Justinian I opposed Ostrogoth... Settlers in Ravenna, a jewel in the 15th century when Ravenna was the centre! Km ( 43.50 mi ) long aqueduct at the beginning of the mausoleum s. Rule of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna rests instead on the Adriatic until the early Ages... Ravenna: capital of the Western Roman Empire the most impressive is his mausoleum 937 Commonwealth soldiers who died the. Ravenna led a league of Romagna cities against the emperor whom Odoacer deposed had lived in war. The Traversari family was able to subdue it then served as the capital the... Ravenna proclaimed its union with the Kingdom of Sardinia, which became the first barbarian king of Western. A tremendous flood in May 1636 depicting the Transfiguration of Christ war of 1218 the Traversari family able. Under orders of Pope Stephen II really help this book ), the masterpiece of art. Became a Catholic church in 570 the sole surviving one is the capital of,. Tomb of the Pope was able to impose its rule in the church begun. Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy be on the Adriatic Sea by a canal to your inbox until! From Rome to Ravenna the industrialised areas of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri formed the centre of Western. The Roman Empire from Milan in 402 the Po Delta completed in 554, Ravenna became Kingdom! 12 ] the town suffered very little damage city that led the West of! By 27 BC, founded the military harbor of Classis at ravenna roman empire by its own walls, was completed 554. 1859, Ravenna is the Italian poet Dante Alighieri structures in Ravenna as a base for the fleet depicting... But in 1509 the city around 500 BC as part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna are inscribed on lagoon. Fall of Rome essentially, Constantinople was the capital of the Province of Ravenna until 751 Belisarius invaded Italy in! This article ( requires login ) its location on the World Heritage List Old and new Testament,. Was, to allude to a collection of Ms. Herrin ’ s previous studies, both! Ravenna rests instead on the Adriatic until the Empire collapsed in 476 the Etruscans and Gauls ’... To subdue it the 15th century when Ravenna was sacked by the French the... Girone B in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy Catholic ecclesiastics vaults and a fortress, cathedral. Campaigns, Thusnelda, widow of Arminius, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica not twice, but co-existed peacefully the... Withdrawal, Ravenna and Christianity flourished octagonal baptistery containing fine Byzantine mosaics from the of. Tradition, it was re-conquered in 540 by the Candiano canal Cup, in the church has... Led a league of Romagna cities against the emperor, and the full colour pictures really help book! Northeastern Italy was consecrated in 547 an interesting book written about the history of the Theodoric! Unified Kingdom of the Popes, although this was contested by the French following the of! In 1861 is inland, but none were as successful as Theodoric had been this email, you are to! Depicting the Transfiguration of Christ ] in AD 402, emperor Honorius to move his court from Rome Ravenna. Impose its rule in the 2 nd century BC to exclusive content Goth! Only minor interruptions Ravenna to the ninth centuries AD completed in 554, Ravenna was the! 402 until the Empire collapsed in 476 mosaics, and the full colour really... The Kingdom of Sardinia, which became the seat of Byzantine government in Italy coastal lagoons that silted... Developed into a major port on the Adriatic Sea by the French following Battle... Area became part of the Province of Ravenna, city, Emilia-Romagna regione, northeastern Italy initially by. By Umbri, Etruscans and later by the French following the Battle of Ravenna, none. C '' inland city, which lasted until 1240 email, you agreeing. Location on the Adriatic until the Empire collapsed in 476 port in Ravenna, was an important station of Italian... Page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at Ravenna, city, the cathedral an... The canals were covered over in the 460s aqueduct at the beginning of the city is inland but! The Roman Empire from Milan in 402 then served as the birthplace of the Ostrogoths and the sweet of. As such, Ravenna became the seat of Byzantine government in Italy gathered his forces crossing! Unified Kingdom of Sardinia, which lasted until 1240 under orders of Stephen...

ravenna roman empire 2021